Owners of multimillion States before the revolution could afford everything-and monumental three-storey manor, and neo-Gothic mansions, and English castles. "Guide for you" tells in what houses lived the richest merchants and Industrialists of his time.
Demidov city estate
Gorokhovskiy per., 4
Under Peter I, the Demidov dynasty became one of the richest in Russia: they founded several mining and weapons plants in the Urals and in Tula. At the end of the XVIII century Ivan Demidov built in the Basmanny quarter of Moscow city estate in the style of classicism.
The author of the project was the architect Matvey Kazakov. On the site of one-storey chambers, he built a monumental three-storey building with a solemn colonnade: Corinthian portico decorated with sculptural decoration. The interiors of the house looked impressive - especially the "Golden rooms" (Zolotye komnaty). In the main halls wooden carving of furniture, cornices were covered with gold-on the architect's drawings.
Subsequently, the estate has repeatedly changed its owners and rebuilt. In Soviet times it housed the Institute of geodesy, aerial photography and cartography engineers. Since 1993, the estate is the State University of geodesy and cartography.
Nikolay Vtorov's Mansion
Spasopeskovskiy pereulok, 10
At the beginning of the XX century, the banker and entrepreneur Nikolai Vtorov was the richest man in Russia. Its state historians estimate at 60 million gold rubles (more than 60 billion in terms of modern money). In Moscow, commissioned by Vtorov architects Vladimir Adamovich and Vladimir Mayat built a large mansion in the neoclassical style. They designed a symmetrical building with a half-tone supporting the balcony. The interior of the house was designed by the artist Ignatius Nivinsky. After the revolution, the mansion was nationalized — it began to accommodate apartments and offices. Since 1933, the building is the residence of the us Ambassador, and the mansion is named "Spaso house".
Zinaida Morozova's Mansion
17 Spiridonovka street
The Morozov family was one of the richest merchant dynasties in Russia. They owned cotton fields, textile factories, chemical plants. Morozov owned numerous real estate in Moscow and Moscow region. One of the most famous mansions of the capital is the house of Zinaida Morozova, wife of Savva Morozov.
The estate was completed in 1898, the project was led by architect Fyodor Shekhtel. He built the estate in the neo-Gothic style with a tower with massive Windows. Facades he decorated quite succinctly-the main detail was a number of arched Windows. For interior decoration Shekhtel invited young Mikhail Vrubel. The artist painted three panels for the living room, created the stained glass window " Knight " and the sculpture"Robert and the nuns". With the advent of Soviet power in the mansion housed the food Committee, an orphanage. Today it is the home of receptions of the Ministry of foreign Affairs.
The House Of Peter Smirnova
Tverskoy Boulevard, 18
In the XIX century, Russian businessman Peter Smirnov was nicknamed "vodka king" of Russia: he owned the " Partnership of a vodka factory, warehouses of wine, alcohol and Russian and foreign grape wines P. A. Smirnov in Moscow." When Emperor Alexander III tried Smirnov's products, he made it the only supplier of the court Of his Imperial Majesty.
His son and heir Peter Smirnov in 1900 acquired the estate on Tverskoy Boulevard. He commissioned the architect Fyodor Shekhtel to reconstruct the house. Externally, the architect gave the estate a chic modern style-designed glazed Bay Windows, added a balcony, changed the shape of the Windows. Inside, he created a Suite of rooms, designed in a variety of styles: classicism, Rococo, Egyptian, Greek and others. In the estate had electricity, ventilation and steam heating. In Soviet times, the mansion was the Revolutionary Tribunal, the people's court and the Prosecutor's office, today there is a Banquet hall.
City estate of Andrei Knop
Kolpachny lane, 5
One of the richest people in Russia in the XIX century was Johann Ludwig Knop — entrepreneur, cotton merchant. He helped to open textile factories throughout the country: more than 200 enterprises were built under the direction of Knop. After the death of the businessman, his two sons inherited not only factories, but also the city estate. They shared it with each other. In one of the areas in 1900 by the architect Karl Treiman built for Andrew Knop town house in the Gothic revival style. Similar to the English castle, the building was decorated with a toothed turret, plucked endings and sculptural Baron's coats of arms of the Knop family. Inside the estate was also decorated in the style of English Gothic-the walls were decorated with collectible guns and tapestries.
After the revolution, the estate was nationalized, at different times there was a representative of the Ukrainian SSR, the reception of the Chairman of the State Commission for electrification of Russia Gleb Krzhizhanovsky and the Moscow Committee of the Komsomol organization. Today, the building houses commercial offices.
Kozma Soldatenkov's Estate
Myasnitskaya street, 37
Kozma Soldatenkov went down in history as the owner of his own art gallery, bookseller and one of the largest benefactors: he donated more than 5 million rubles (for comparison — 50 rubles at the time you could buy a cow or a horse). Income brought him to a textile factory, inherited from his father.
In the 1850s, he acquired the estate built by Osip Bove and Afanasiy Grigoriev. Its reconstruction he commissioned the architect Alexander Rezanov. He expanded the wings and built the front lobby. The architect designed the interiors in different styles-Byzantine, Pompeian, Renaissance. In addition, the estate was arranged old believer chapel. There was also a picturesque collection and a library. When Soldatenkov mansion was one of the centers of cultural life in Moscow — it was visited by Vasily Klyuchevsky, Anton Chekhov, Sergei Solovyov and others. After the revolution, the estate housed a sanatorium, a kindergarten; during the war-the Headquarters of the Supreme command and the state defense Committee. Today, in one of the wings of the estate has a restaurant.
Nicholas Stakheev's Mansion
Novaya Basmannaya street, 14
Nicholas Stakheev were the gold mining and merchant. In Moscow, he owned several apartment houses. It was he who built the apartment house on Myasnitskaya street-today in this building there is a bookstore "Biblio-Globus". Stakheev himself lived in a neo-Greek estate on Novaya Basmannaya street. The manor house for the merchant was built in 1899 by architect Mikhail Bugrovsky. In front of the monumental asymmetrical building was a garden and a fountain "Goddess of the night" (it works today). The interiors combined different styles: there were rooms in the Baroque, Rococo, Gothic, etc. After the revolution, the mansion housed a division of the Commissariat of Railways, and then the Central house of railway children.
Mansion Of Stepan Ryabushinsky
6 Malaya Nikitskaya street
In the middle of the XIX century the old believers of Kaluga founded a small textile factory. Over time, the number of factories increased, and Ryabushinskys were among the richest people in Russia. One of the most famous Moscow addresses of this name is the mansion of Stepan Ryabushinsky on Malaya Nikitskaya street, which became one of the main monuments of modernism in Moscow.
The mansion was built in 1903 by architect Fyodor Shekhtel. He designed a three-storey house. However, due to the Windows of different sizes, located on different levels, it looked on the one hand as a two — storey, and on the other-as a multi-storey. The facade of the building is decorated with a mosaic of irises. The interior of the house is designed in a marine style-the first floor is a wave-like staircase: its prototype was the staircase in the house of French actress Ivette Gilber.
In the hall hangs a chandelier in the form of jellyfish, and the door handles are cast in the form of seahorses. The main secret of the building was a secret old believers ' chapel, located in the attic. After the revolution, the mansion was nationalized. In Soviet times it belonged to the people's Commissariat of foreign Affairs, Psychoanalytic Institute and even kindergarten. Now the building is a Museum-apartment of Maxim Gorky: the writer lived here in 1931-1936.
Podsosensky lane, 30
The Prokhorov family owned the oldest textile enterprise in Moscow — the trekhgornaya manufactory. It made them a huge profit. In 1860 Konstantin Prokhorov wife Praskovia Lugovoi (the heir of a merchant dynasty of Hladovych) moved to the house on Vorontsovo field. The building was built in the late XVIII century, and then restored after a fire in 1812. Externally solved in the classical style, inside it was decorated more diverse — in Moorish, Greek, and other styles. In 1997, the building was completely renovated, today it houses the offices of ROSENERGOBANK. Once a month in the mansion conducted tours.
Mokhovaya street, 6
For 100 years the Krasilshchikov family has made its way from serfs to one of the richest Industrialists in Russia. They earned their capital in the textile industry. In 1906, Nikolai Krasilshchikov bought a large house on Mokhovaya street, which at different times was owned by princes Nikita Zotov, Fyodor Golitsyn and Peter Shakhovskaya.
The last reconstruction of the house was made in 1868 by the architect Alexander Kaminsky: he combined the main building with side wings and built a classic ionic portico. After the revolution Krasilschikov emigrated to France. The house housed a hostel, and later-the Institute of library science. Today the center of Oriental literature of the Russian state library is located in the estate.