The portal "Guide for you" has compiled a short guide to the main styles that can be seen in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other cities of Russia.
Old Russian cross-domed architecture
Civil monuments of the XI-XVII centuries are very few, but churches of this period can be seen in cities older than 400 years. As a rule, these are rectangular buildings whose walls are oriented to the sides of the world. The domes of the church dominate, the number of which can vary, most often there are one-, five-, nine- and thirteen-headed churches. For example, St. Sophia Cathedral in Veliky Novgorod - five-domed, and the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl is crowned by one dome. But no matter how many domes there are, there is always one main: it is raised on a special base - the drum.
Old Russian tent-roofed architecture
In the XVI century, the domes were replaced by a purely Russian invention, which has no analogues in the Church architecture of other countries: the tent is the completion of the temple in the form of a multi — faceted pyramid, not the dome. Probably, the appearance of tent architecture is due to technical difficulties: many churches in Russia were built of wood, and to make the dome of this material is not easy. Later, this architectural feature spread to stone construction. To imagine a tent Church, it is enough to remember the Church of the ascension in Kolomenskoye and the tent bell tower in Kizhi.
This architectural style came to Russia at the end of the XVII century. The first buildings appeared in Moscow, then Baroque buildings actively built up St. Petersburg. The Baroque style identify simple: the main feature of the complex forms and the abundance of decorations. Actually, the term "Baroque" in Italian means "bizarre, strange". Among the examples-the Zimny Palace in St. Petersburg and the Church of the Sign in Dubrovitsy in the Moscow region.
In General, the Rococo style, popular in the second half of the XVIII century, has much in common with Baroque. The main differences lie in the details. Buildings in the Rococo style are richly decorated with sculptural decoration-vases and flower garlands, masks or just cute curls. There are few similar buildings in Russia. These include the Kitayskiy Palace and the Katalnaya Gorka pavilion in Oranienbaum.
Buildings in the classical style can be found in many Russian cities. This architectural direction was widespread in the late XVIII-first half of the XIX century. In the classical style, palaces and estates, theaters and even warehouses were built. The key detail by which you can easily identify the monument of the classical era — a column. Lots of columns. Also, the buildings in this style are distinguished by restraint, symmetry and laconic decor. These are, for example, the Tavrichesky Palace in St. Petersburg and the Bolshoi theater in Moscow.
Buildings in this architectural style, which appeared in the middle of the XIX century, the most diverse. The main feature of historicism is the architect's appeal to the heritage of the past. The past could be, for example, Byzantine — then there were buildings in the neo-Russian style, as the Church of Christ the Savior. It could be Gothic-so was built Tsaritsyno estate in Moscow. And could be the understanding of the heritage of the Renaissance - as Moscow and Leningrad stations. The key external features of historicism are rather difficult to formulate: the buildings of this style are unlike. If you see a building that "wants to appear older than it really is" — it's probably a monument of historicism.
Buildings in the architectural style of art Nouveau appeared in the late XIX-early XX century. The abundance of glass and iron, the use of mosaics and paintings on the facades, unusual curved lines and asymmetry — all signs of modernity. House of the company "singer "in St. Petersburg or hotel" Metropol " in Moscow — the most characteristic buildings in this style.
In the 1920s, the Soviet state had the same revolutionary as the new government, the architectural style. Simple structures and lack of decor, glass and concrete-such were the avant-garde buildings. For avant-garde architects, the functionality of the building was important, not its aesthetic value. It is not surprising that the style, in addition to supporters, there were ardent opponents who called the avant-garde building "concrete tumors" on the body of Moscow. For example, contemporaries appreciated the Melnikov House of culture named after Rusakov. Mostorg Department store on Krasnaya Presnya-another well-known example of avant-garde-met more calmly.
In Stalin's time, architects began to turn again to the classical heritage, although in a slightly different sense. The buildings of the 1930s-40s were majestic and pompous — with columns and stucco work, wall paintings and an abundance of decor with Soviet symbols. The columns came back into fashion. One of the interesting conceptions of classicism style in Stalin's time was the Central academic theatre of the Russian army in the form of a five-pointed star and the main building of Moscow state University on the Vorob'yevykh hills.
The typical architecture of the Khrushchev and Brezhnev time
Together with the era of Stalin ended and the era of "architectural excesses" and monumentalism. The same inexpressive buildings on standard projects can be found both in residential buildings of that time, and in public architecture — such were cinemas, schools, hospitals. In the residential area of any Russian city, the so-called Khrushchevki are likely to be the backbone of the local landscape.