Yekaterininskiy Palace and Tsarskosel'skiy Lyceum are stormed by crowds of domestic and foreign tourists, and some beautiful monuments of Pushkin city remain in the shadows. Tell about the most interesting of them.
Alexander Palace and Park
Alexander Park is located next to the Yekaterininskiy . Its main Palace, later named after Alexander in honor of Emperor Alexander I, was built by architect Giacomo Quarenghi at the end of the XVIII century. He designed a two-storey building with two wings and a Corinthian colonnade.
In the second half of the XIX century Alexander Palace became the residence of the future Emperor Alexander III. The last owner of the Palace was Emperor Nikolay II-from here his family was sent to exile in Tobolsk. Already in 1918, Alexander Palace was turned into a Museum and opened to the General public, then there was a rest House of NKVD and later a children's home. In addition to the Alexander Palace, the Park is Arsenal, Gothic pavilions "Ruin" and "Belaya tower". They were built in 1810-20-ies.
Babolovsky Park was established in the second half of the XVIII century. Its main attraction is the Palace of the same name, built by architect Ilya Neelov by order of Grigory Potemkin in 1784-1785. It was an asymmetrical building in neo-Gothic style with a tent octagonal tower.
In the 1820s the Palace was rebuilt by Vasily Stasov-then there was a huge granite "Tsar Bath" by Samson Sukhanov. During the war, the Palace was destroyed and was not subsequently restored. Now it is in a ruined state. Another attraction of the Park is the first in the Tsarskoye Selo vodovod — Taitsky. The Park itself, conceived as a landscape, today has a somewhat neglected appearance.
The English-style Fermsky Park was a continuation of the Alexander Park. It was built around the Imperial farm. The building of the farm in pseudo-Gothic style in the 1820s was built by the architect Adam Menelas. The complex of buildings included a cattle yard, a stable, a dairy wing, a cowshed and even a pavilion for lamas, which were sent from South America as a gift to Alexander I.
Under the leadership of Menelas in the Park dug two ponds and paved the tracks. Under Nikolay II there were buildings of guards and infantry barracks. In the Soviet time on the territory of the Park and farm is the Petrograd agricultural Institute, which is located there today.
At the beginning of the XX century in Pushkin planned to build a new Theodore Cathedral. At the same time, the construction of a complex of buildings for the Church clergy began. Architect Stepan Krichinsky designed the architectural complex in the pseudo-Russian style in the spirit of the Rostov Kremlin. The work on the project continued from 1913 to 1918: houses for priests, a refectory, a sauna, and a Laundry were built. During the First world war in the Theodore town worked as a hospital for wounded soldiers and officers. In Soviet times, it housed the agricultural Institute, and later the hotel. Today Theodore town is the Patriarch's farmstead.
In honor of Russia's military victories over Turkey in Tsarskoye Selo decided to lay a new Cathedral. It was planned that it would be built in the spirit of St. Sophia of Constantinople, so it was called St. Sophia. Architects Charles Cameron and Ivan Starov managed to avoid a complete copy of the Constantinople temple-with him Tsarskoye Selo Cathedral related only dome drum with a large number of Windows and black and red columns inside the temple. St. Sophia Cathedral was one of the first monuments of classicism style in Russia — it was a five-domed Church, surrounded on four sides by porticos with Doric colonnade. In Soviet times, the Church was closed, its building was used as a military warehouse, and the area around — as a landfill. Only since 1989 in the Cathedral again began to hold services.
Memorial Museum-dacha of Alexander Pushkin
Tsarskosel'skiy Lyceum is not the only address of Alexander Pushkin in the city named after him. In 1831, shortly after his wedding with Natalia Goncharova, the poet from may to October rented an apartment in a small mansion of Anna Kitaeva. It was there that Pushkin wrote a letter to Onegin Tatiana and"the Tale of Tsar Saltan".
In 1958 the Museum was opened and restored according to the memoirs of contemporaries the study and the dining room of Pushkin house. The historical and literary composition was also dedicated to Vasily Zhukovsky, a frequent guest of the poet in Tsarskoye Selo. The Pushkin house also became an architectural monument: this small wooden building with a mezzanine was built by architects Alexey Gornostaev and Vasily Stasov in 1827.
Alexander Kokorev was the heir of the famous industrialist Vasily Kokorev. At the end of the XIX century, he ordered the construction of his new estate to his beloved architect Nikolaya II — Silvio Danini. To this end, Kokorev added another plot of land, bought from the Gumilev family, where the future poet Nikolai Gumilev spent his first years, to the land already available to him. In 1901-1902, Danini built an asymmetric mansion in the art Nouveau style with Gothic elements on this territory.
Around the house was a garden, which was decorated with bizarre statues - painted figures of Africans in full size, stuffed elephant and plaster gnomes. The interiors of the mansion looked no less intricate-neo-Renaissance here was adjacent to the Eastern style and art Nouveau. During the first world war, the building housed the infirmary, where the wounded were treated including members of the family of architect Danini. During the great Patriotic war, a bomb hit the building, but it did not explode, and the mansion survived. Today there is a "Museum of rare things" from the collection of Ivan Fomin.