Peter's Baroque-architectural direction, which appeared in the years 1703-1730. It arose against the background of Peter I's passion for the Dutch and German style of building construction. We have collected 10 buildings in the style of Peter's Baroque, built in the city on the Neva river one of the first.
The main principles of Peter's Baroque are rationalism, simplicity and balance. Externally, the buildings of Peter's time are mostly rectangular, symmetrical buildings. The Central part sometimes rises on the main line of the building and is decorated with a portico or sculpture. The facade is more often painted red, and white on it are allocated elements of architectural orders-as a rule, it is flat Russian "blades" or pilasters, but not classical columns. The Windows are decorated with architraves with "ears" at the corners, on the roof — special openings — Lucerne.
Menshikov Palace became the first stone building in the new Russian capital. Its construction lasted four years and was completed by 1714. The project of the Palace was designed by the architects Giovanni Maria Fontana and Gottfried Johann schadel. This three-storey building with an attic has long been one of the most luxurious in St. Petersburg. Here were held the solemn dinners of the Royal family and even the wedding of the Prince Alexei with the German Princess Charlotte Sophia and Anna Ioannovna with Frederick Wilhelm, Duke of Courland.
The Palace is connected with the city legend: Menshikov, the first Governor of St. Petersburg, had to pay Peter two hundred thousand rubles fine. In order to repay this debt, he sold some of the furnishings of his Palace. Pyotr Menshikov shamed: "on your first day of reception if I find here the same poverty that does not match your rank, I will make you pay another two hundred thousand rubles." Menshikov fulfilled the will of the king, and his house shone again with rich decoration.
Letniy Palace of Peter I
Letniy Palace of Peter I, built in 1710-1714, was a model for the construction of houses "green famous" persons. Except that the decoration of the facade and the interior layout distinguished the Royal Palace from the houses of his dignitaries.
The two-storey stone building was built in the Dutch style by Domenico Trezzini. The facades of the building look elegant-they are decorated with terracotta bas-reliefs-illustrations of the battles in the Northern war, made by Andreas Schluter. The interior layout of the Palace is simple — there are only fourteen small rooms and two kitchens. Contemporaries found the Palace unsuitable for the Royal residence, one of the ambassadors called it "a miserable house, not at all commensurate with everything else." According to him, the Letniy Palace was "so close that a wealthy nobleman probably would not want to fit in it." After Peter's death, both members of the Imperial family and Royal dignitaries lived in the Palace.
Petropavlovskiyl Cathedral, construction of which began in 1712 on the site of the eponymous wooden Church in 1703, has long been the tallest building in Russia. The height of the bell tower, from which the construction was started, was 122.5 meters. At the same time, according to legend, the spire of the bell tower Peter ordered to build over the place where he was buried Prince Alexei, "so that kramola never rose from the earth and spread to Russia" (Prince Alexei, the son of Peter I, was accused of treason). Petropavlovskiy Cathedral is very different from the traditional Russian churches: it is an elongated building with a very restrained facades, which make out only flat columns — pilasters and frames with cherubim. Petropavlovskiy Cathedral was the first Russian temple built in the trends of Western European architecture.
Kikin's chamber is one of the oldest private houses in St. Petersburg. It got its name after the first owner — Alexander Vasilyevich Kikin, a colleague of Peter I. His position at the court allowed to build a luxurious house, something resembling a large Palace in Peterhof. After Kikin, accused of treason, was executed, in the wards placed then did not have their own building Peter's Cabinet of curiosities and the personal library of the king.
Under Kikin chamber were one-story (they were built on the project of the Schluter), was later built on the second floor. In 1733, when barracks for the Cavalry regiment appeared nearby, the infirmary and the office were located in the chambers. The large hall was converted into a regimental Church — in the middle of the chambers there was a wooden bell tower with a dome and a cross. In the XIX century the building was rebuilt several times. Now the chambers look the same as at Kikin — after the war, the building, badly damaged by the shelling, was reconstructed in the forms of Peter's Baroque.
Peter I was known for his lack of elegance and sometimes even contempt for luxury, so his Palace in Peterhof, called "Monplaisir", or "my pleasure", has little in common with the palaces of other European monarchs. The small building was built according to the drawings of the king by architects Andreas Schluter and replaced the architect after his death by Johann Friedrich Braunstein. The facade of the one-storey building of red brick was made in the Dutch style.
If the exterior of the Palace looks very restrained and modest, in the creation of interiors Peter I moved away from their ascetic rules: marble floors, walls, oak panels, ceilings with paintings, a rich collection of paintings and works of art.
Monplaisir has never been rebuilt, its interior was not changed — the Palace was kept as a memory of the first Russian Emperor. He loved it, especially for the beautiful view of the Gulf of Finland, opening from the terrace.
Troitskiy Alexander - Nevsky monastery
Alexander Nevsky Lavra was founded in 1710 on the place where Alexander Nevsky defeated the Swedes. This symbolism was very important for Peter-Moscow and its St. George had to oppose something, and he saw the future monastery as the main Russian monastery. Today, the oldest Church in the monastery, around which the monastery was built, is the Annunciation (1717-1724). The author of the project was Domenico Trezzini. He built a rectangular building, the facade of which is modestly decorated with pilasters and stucco. The temple is completed by a faceted dome mounted on a light lantern. Subsequently, members of the Imperial family and Royal dignitaries were buried in this Church.
The Kunstkammer and Academy of Sciences
Peter I after a trip to Holland and England was inspired by the idea of creating his own Cabinet of rarities, or in the German manner — the Kunstkammer. He systematically purchased both individual items and entire collections. Soon this collection called for a separate building. In 1718, on the spit of Vasilievsky island was founded the "house of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Library and Kunstkammer".
According to legend, the place for the construction of the museum was personally chosen by Peter I. He saw an unusual pine: "This cut is worthy of note on the bitch in it in the thickness of a human hand, which, growing up from one place and bending down by a semi-circle, finally grew into another by a distance of 1 arshin and 10 versts from his source. " Peter said: "Where I found this curious tree, then let it be and the Kunstkamera is built." The first sketches of the museum were made by Andreas Schlüter, and after his death they were finalized by Georg Mattarnovi. Peter was so interested in the construction of the Kunstkamera that he donated to him so-called cabinet (that is, his personal) means. Until the middle of the XIX century, the first in Russia astronomical observatory was located in the tower of the Kunstkamera. At the top of the tower, it was first planned to make a weather vane, but then it was decided to install there an armillary sphere representing a model of the solar system.
A small two-storey palace located in the western part of the Nizhniy Park of Peterhof, received its name in honor of the residence of Louis XIV Marley Le Roy. Two-story palace decided not to do it right away: first Peter ordered to erect a one-story building, and already when it was put under the roof, it was decided to build a second floor. Marley became the first Russian building with a corridor planning system - a system of isolated rooms connected by one gallery. In Marly came members of the royal family - Catherine I, Anna Petrovna with her husband, Duke of Holstein, Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodorovna. The building was also used as a place for storing personal belongings of Peter I - clothes, dishes, diplomatic gifts and paintings. Some of the exhibits can still be seen today in the museum exposition in the halls of Marly.
The Hermitage Pavilion
The Hermitage was built in accordance with the then fashion for so-called hermit shelters. The author of the project was Johann Braunstein, who began construction in 1721 and completed it after the death of Peter I. Around the building in the medieval manner dug a ditch through which the drawbridge was thrown.
In the lower floor of the Hermitage there were economic premises-a closet, a kitchen, a buffet, from there on special lifts to the second floor food was delivered. Guests also climbed on a kind of lift-chair. However, after Paul I had visited the Hermitage and one of the cables was broken, it was decided to build a ladder.
The building of the state boards
In 1718 Peter I adopted the law on the establishment of state boards. Soon they needed a separate building. Architects Domenico Trezzini and Theodor Schwertfeger began building on Vasilyevsky island in 1722. Peter I ordered that all the colleges were located in separate buildings, but each of them could be passed one by one — Trezzini designed a plan, according to which each building had its own entrance, was blocked by a separate roof, but all the colleges were connected into a single 400-meter composition. The architect created the project under the impression of the exchange in Copenhagen, where he lived before moving to St. Petersburg.
Interesting and the location of the building - perpendicular to the embankment. This fact is associated with a city legend: the construction of the building of Peter I before leaving Petersburg commissioned Menshikov. In gratitude for the service, he promised to give to Menshikov's estate all the remaining land after the construction. The courtier judged that if the building is located along the embankment, then there will be very little land left, so he decided to put it in such an unusual way. Of course, Peter I, seeing this, was enraged, but could do nothing.
The building did not fulfill its purpose. Under Anna Ioannovna, the city center was moved to the Admiralty side, where the Collegia gradually moved. Now the building is located in St. Petersburg state University.